A Taylor & Francis Journal:  Work and Stress - Instructions for Authors 
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Instructions for Authors

***Note to Authors: please make sure your contact address information is clearly visible on the outside of all packages you are sending to Editors.***

A guide to the preparation and submission of manuscripts

Work and Stress is an international, multidisciplinary quarterly that presents refereed academic papers concerned with the psychological, social and organizational aspects of occupational and environmental health, and stress and safety management. The journal publishes empirical reports, scholarly reviews, research notes, case studies and theoretical papers. It is directed at occupational health psychologists, work and organizational psychologists, those involved with organizational development, and all concerned with the interplay of work, health and organisations

Editorial team and contact details:

Professor Tom Cox (Managing Editor)

Mary Tisserand (Assistant Editor)


Institute for Work, Health and Organisations
University of Nottingham
William Lee Buildings, Unit 8
Nottingham Science and Technology Park
University Boulevard, Nottingham NG7 2RQ

e-mail: Mary.Tisserand@nottingham.ac.uk

Taylor and Francis Group, 4 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN, UK

Submitting a paper to Work and Stress

Electronic submission is encouraged, although papers can be submitted as hard copy provided a disk is also supplied. Further details are given in: Submitting your paper electronically.


Work & Stress considers all manuscripts on condition that they are the property (copyright) of the submitting author(s) and that copyright will be transferred to Work and Stress and the Taylor and Francis Group if the paper is accepted for publication.

The journal considers all manuscripts on the strict consideration that they have been submitted only to Work and Stress, that they have not been published already, and that they are not under consideration for publication, or in press elsewhere.

Contributors are required to secure permission for the reproduction of any figure, table or extensive (more than fifty words) extract from the text, from any source that is copyrighted - or owned - by a party other than Taylor and Francis or the contributor. This applies both to direct reproduction and to "derivative reproduction", in which the contributor has created a new figure or table that derives substantially from a copyrighted source.

It is a condition of publication that authors assign copyright or license the publication rights in their articles, including abstracts, in Taylor & Francis. This enables us to ensure full copyright protection and to disseminate the article, and the Journal, to the widest possible readership in print and electronic formats as appropriate. Authors retain many rights under the Taylor & Francis rights policies, which can be found at www.informaworld.com/authors_journals_copyright_position. Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyright material from other sources.

Paper preparation and presentation guidelines

Adherence to these guidelines, while not a condition of acceptance, will expedite the review, editing and publication of your paper.

The manuscript: basic requirements

  • Type the manuscript in 12-point Times. Type on one side of each sheet only, in double line spacing throughout (including tables and references). Use generous margins of at least 2.5 cm (1") at the top, bottom, left and right of the page.
  • Number the sheets. The first page is the title page. It should include the title of the paper and the names and full postal addresses of all authors. Also include contact details for the author to whom correspondence and proofs should be sent: fax, telephone number and e-mail address. When there is joint authorship it will be assumed that the first-named author is the corresponding author unless otherwise stated
  • The title page will be removed when the paper is sent out for blind review. Papers submitted electronically should have the title page in a separate file. Authors are asked to make sure that no clues as to their identity are given elsewhere on the paper. This includes acknowledgements, which can be combined with the title page until a paper is accepted for publication.
  • Page two of the paper should repeat the full title, and include an abstract and up to six keywords. The purpose of these is to make it possible for the paper to be found in a search of the literature.
  • The manuscript should be clearly divided into sections, using concise headings. The Method section typically includes subsections on participants and procedure, and on measures.
  • Figures and tables should be supplied on separate pages. They should be placed at the end of the manuscript, not inserted within the text. Group together figure captions on another sheet.
  • A short biography - of about 100 words - of each author is invited, but is not essential. It will not be published, and should be supplied separately from the manuscript.

The editorial office will send an acknowledgement of receipt of papers, together with a reference number. Please use this number in any correspondence regarding your paper.

Papers will be refereed anonymously.

Editorials: The journal welcomes offers of editorials. Further details are given later in this guide.

The paper: content

Work & Stress is international in its readers and authors. Clearly explain - or avoid the use of - terms that might only be understood by a local or national readership. Also explain specialist terms that will only be comprehensible to one section of the readership.

Empirical papers should advance knowledge, policy or practice. Different thresholds of acceptability may be appropriate for different types of paper. Scholarly papers describing and reviewing specialist concerns for the non-academic readership are encouraged.

The journal is keen to support new developments in empirical and theoretical research, so innovative themes and procedures are encouraged. Although empirical research reports form the majority of published papers, constructively critical surveys of field studies, theoretical contributions and prescriptive articles (with methodological, statistical or procedural suggestions) are also welcome.

The journal also welcomes review papers. These must demonstrate a thorough and up-to-date knowledge of the relevant literature, not only nationally but also worldwide. Do not combine in one paper a comprehensive review and the report of an empirical study. You are advised to contact the Editor before writing a review paper (as opposed to an original study) for Work and Stress. This is not essential but is in your own interests, so that you can receive guidance from the Editor before embarking on a lengthy paper.

There is considerable pressure on journal space. Empirical papers should not normally exceed about 30 double-spaced typewritten pages, including references, figures and tables. Shorter papers are welcomed, and may receive earlier publication.

Papers that do not meet the criteria for full academic papers can be considered for publication as Research Notes or Practice Notes. These are normally no longer than six published pages (that is, less than three thousand words plus two figures/tables).

Cross-sectional studies. Potential authors are reminded about the limitations of cross-sectional, self-report studies. In papers that report such studies, authors should make it clear why this design and method are justified in their particular case. It may be, for example, that (a) their study is very original; (b) steps are taken to control for self-report biases; (c) no causality is claimed (d) the limitations are clearly stated. However, in all cases authors are asked to deal with these issues in the paper and in the covering letter to the Editor. This may avoid unnecessary revision or rejection of the paper.

With regard to the arrangement of the paper, the Abstract should present a clear overview of the paper. The main paper should provide an adequate but not overlong Introduction, and clearly defined sections for Method, Results and Discussion/Conclusions. Where appropriate, the method section should include adequate information on participants and procedure, and on measures. The Discussion section should include mention of any limitations of the study. Tables should only be included when necessary, should not be over-densely packed with information, and should be clearly labelled. The Reference section should be adequate but not over-long. It should demonstrate a thorough and up-to-date knowledge of the world-wide literature on the subject under consideration.

Footnotes cause typesetting problems and interrupt the flow of the paper for the reader. Their use should be avoided. Most notes can be incorporated into the body of the text. Otherwise they should be listed in a "Notes" section at the end of the paper.

Any acknowledgements that you wish to make should be included in a separate headed section at the end of the manuscript once it has been accepted for publication.

Work and Stress does not publish appendices. Readers can be invited to contact the corresponding author for information that is too detailed to be included in the text.

Further details on some of these sections follow later in these guidelines.

Writing style

Please write clearly and concisely, clearly stating your objectives and any hypotheses to be tested. Terms should be defined and abbreviations explained. Your arguments should be substantiated with well-reasoned supporting evidence, together with appropriate citations from published literature.

Use a direct form of expression. The phrase "a model was developed" does not indicate whether this was done by you or by another worker in the field. This style can lead to confusion, particularly if, for instance, you have just cited another study. Instead, use the active voice: either "We (or 'The present authors') developed a model" or "Ferguson (1997) developed a model".

For all papers, non-discriminatory language is mandatory. Sexist or racist terms should not be used. Do not use the impersonal term "subjects" to describe people. Instead use "participants", "respondents" or "individuals", as appropriate.

When writing your paper you are encouraged to cite relevant papers that have been published in Work and Stress. This will enhance context and continuity for the readers.


This is a presented as a single paragraph of about 200 words, and no greater than 220 words. It is not an introduction to the paper. Rather, it will be used by abstracting and information services and should concisely encapsulate the whole paper. For an empirical paper, include in the abstract a statement of the problem under investigation and any hypotheses tested, information on the participants (number, age, gender, occupation etc.) and sampling procedure, a statement of the method used, major findings, conclusions that might be drawn and the implications of these findings for further research or application/practice. Above all, state how your paper contributes to the literature.

For review papers, state in the abstract the primary objective of the review, how it was conducted, its scope, the main conclusions that might be drawn and any implications for further research or practice.


  1. Figures must be referred to in the text. Number them in the order of their appearance, as: Figure 1 (not Fig.).

  2. Figures should not be incorporated into the typewritten text, but provided on separate sheets and placed at the end of the manuscript. However, their approximate position in the final, printed text should be clearly indicated in the manuscript:
    [Insert figure 1 about here]

  3. A caption for each figure should be provided that explains its purpose without the need for reference to the text. Do not type the caption on the figure: figure captions should be grouped together on a separate sheet following the main text.

  4. Figures will not be re-drawn. They should be suitable for reduction to page width (125 mm; 5"). Lettering should be of a high standard and large enough to be legible when the figure is reduced in size. If possible avoid drawing figures that would require landscape reproduction (printing sideways on the page).

  5. The axes of graphs should be clearly labelled, and all abbreviations explained.

Tables and statistics

Tables are used to present large amounts of data that cannot easily be incorporated within the text. However, too much tabular data can obscure the main points of your paper, so you are asked to keep the size and number of tables to a minimum. On the other hand, very short simple tables (for instance of only two columns or rows) are often unnecessary: in those cases the data should instead be given in the text.

For the presentation of tables and statistics you are asked to follow the guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA). These are given in the APA Publication Manual, which can either be consulted in a library or obtained from APA. Details of the manual (and other related publications), including purchasing information, is given at: www.apastyle.org ; less detailed guidance on APA requirements may be found from a web search. Some of the points below are in accordance with APA guidelines.

  1. Tables should be typed double-spaced, without vertical lines ("rules"). Horizontal lines can be used at the top and bottom of the table, and below headings. They should not be used to separate blocks of data: Lines used in that way will be removed by the publisher's typesetter. Instead, other means should be found to clarify the presentation. (Spaces, bold type and small side headings can be used where appropriate.)

  2. Tables must be referred to in the text. Number them in the order of their appearance.

  3. Tables should not be incorporated within the text, but typed on separate sheets and placed at the end of the manuscript. However, their approximate position in the final, printed text should be clearly indicated in the manuscript:
    [Insert table 2 about here]

  4. Tables should have a complete, self-explanatory title and be understandable without reference to the text. Each column should have an appropriate heading. A table should report the results of one type of analysis. Do not put new column headings within the body of a table.

  5. Avoid the use of abbreviations in tables; spell out the names of variables in full. Where abbreviations are necessary, they should be explained in a footnote to the table. The only abbreviations that do not require explanation are standard statistical abbreviations such as M, SD, df.

  6. The names of variables should be consistent throughout the text and tables.

  7. Do not use shading in tables.

  8. Most papers will require a table of descriptive statistics, including means, standard deviations and a correlation matrix.

  9. Footnotes to tables to indicate levels of significance should be placed below any other footnotes to tables. They should follow the conventional form: * for p < .05; ** for p < . 01; *** for p < .001. To avoid confusion, asterisks should not be used for any other purpose in tables. Instead, a small superscript letter (a, b, c) or other symbol can be employed.

  10. Levels of significance of .000 as produced by computers should be rounded to .001 for publication.

  11. Do not report data with unwarranted precision. In most cases statistics should be given to no more than two decimal places. Except in unusual cases, percentages should be rounded to whole numbers.

  12. Use a zero before the decimal point when numbers are less than one. For example:
    t = 0.40

    However, do not use a zero before the decimal point when the number cannot be greater than one. This occurs with correlations, proportions and levels of statistical significance. For example:
    r = .27, p < .01

  13. Use of average and mean: The correct term in most cases is "mean", which has a more precise definition.


References cited in the text should give the name of the author(s) and the year of publication. References should be listed alphabetically at the end of the paper.

The exact form for references can be found in recent copies of Work and Stress. It should follow the style of the American Psychological Association. Examples can be seen in APA journals. The address of the APA is given in the section on Tables and Statistics.


Work and Stress welcomes offers of editorials that are relevant to the journal's concern for psychological, social and organisational issues in occupational health and safety, particularly (but not exclusively) where the focus relates to work stress. The best editorials are those focused on an issue of current interest that will stimulate thought and debate on the journal.
Please contact the editorial team in advance if you are interested in contributing an editorial, so that the subject can be agreed.

    The following are guidelines only:

  • Length. Editorials are normally about 1500 to 2000 words long, and can include a few references.
  • Scope. They should be of interest to a large proportion of the journal's readers.
  • Topicality. They should be of current relevance, although the production process means that there will inevitably be a delay of several months before an editorial appears in print.
  • Style. Although this should be scholarly, avoid the use of specialist jargon that will not be understood by a wide readership. Editorials can be a little more "popular" than academic papers.
  • Opinions. An editorial gives the writer the opportunity to express his or her own views. These need not be those of the journal or the publisher, and a disclaimer to that effect is published in the journal.

Electronic Processing of Accepted Papers
It is essential that authors provide the final, revised version of an accepted manuscript in hard (paper) and electronic forms.

Normally we receive and process electronic versions on disk, but if you would like to employ our file transfer protocol (FTP) facility, please contact Taylor & Francis at the address or email given below.

This Guide sets out the procedures, which will assure we can process your article efficiently. It is divided into three sections:

  • a guide for authors using standard word-processing software packages
  • a guide for authors using LaTeX mathematical software packages
  • a guide for authors using graphics software packages

There are some general rules that apply to all three options.

  • these guides do not apply to authors who are submitting an article for consideration and peer review; they apply only to authors whose articles have been reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication
  • print out your hard (paper) copy from the disk you are sending; it is essential that the hard-copy printout is identical to the material on the disk; where versions differ, the hard copy will take precedence. We advise that you maintain back-ups of your files
  • save and send your files on a standard 3.5 inch high density disk (Mac or PC); please do not attempt to send the article via file transfer protocol or email
  • when saving your article onto a disk, please make sure that the files do not exceed a manageable size. Please ensure that figures are saved on a separate disk
  • ensure that the files are not saved as read only
  • virus-check your disk before sending it to the Editor
  • label your disk
  • package disks in such a way as to avoid damage in the post

Disks are not returnable after publication

A guide for authors using standard word-processing software packages

For the main text of your article, most standard PC or Mac word-processing software packages are acceptable, although we prefer Microsoft Word in a PC format.

Word-processed files should be prepared according to the journal style.

Avoid the use of embedded footnotes. For numbered tables, use the table function provided with the word-processing package.

All text should be saved in one file with the complete text (including the title page, abstract, all sections of the body of the paper, references), followed by numbered tables and the figure captions.

You should send the following to the Editor:

  • a 3.5-inch disk containing the final, accepted version of the paper
  • include an ASCII/text only version on the disk as well as the word processed version if possible
  • two hard copy printouts

Disks should be clearly labelled with the following information:

  1. Journal title
  2. Name of author
  3. File names contained on disk
  4. Hardware used (PC or Mac)
  5. Software used (name and version)

Sample disk label: text

Journal title
A.N. Author

MS Word for Windows 7.0

A guide for authors using LaTeX mathematical software packages

Authors who wish to prepare their articles using the LaTeX document preparation system are advised to use article.sty (for LaTex 2.09) or article.cls (for LaTex2e).

The use of macros should be kept to an absolute minimum but if any are used they should be gathered together in the file, just before the \begin{document} command

You should send the following to the Editor:

  • a 3.5-inch disk containing the final, accepted version of the paper
  • the files you send must be text-only (often called an ASCII file), with no system-dependent control codes
  • two hard copy printouts

Disks should be clearly labelled with the following information:

  1. Journal title
  2. Name of author
  3. File names contained on disk
  4. Hardware used (PC or Mac)
  5. Software used (name and version)

Sample disk label: LaTeX
Journal title
A.N. Author
article.tex article.sty

PCLaTeX v2.09

A guide for authors using graphics software packages
We welcome figures on disk, but care and attention to these guidelines is essential, as importing graphics packages can often be problematic.

  1. Figures must be saved on a separate disk from the text.
  2. Avoid the use of colour and tints for aesthetic reasons. Figures should be produced as near to the finished size as possible.
  3. High quality reproducible hard copy for all line figures (printed out from your electronic files at a minimum of 600 dpi) must be supplied in case the disks are unusable; photographs and transparencies can be accepted as hard copy only. Photocopies will not be accepted.
  4. All figures must be numbered in the order in which they occur (e.g. figure 1, figure 2 etc.). In multi-part figures, each part should be labelled (e.g. figure 1 (a), figure 1 (b) etc.)
  5. The figure captions must be saved as a separate file with the text and numbered correspondingly.
  6. The filename for the graphic should be descriptive of the graphic e.g. Figure1, Figure2a.
  7. Files should be saved as TIFF (tagged image file format), PostScript or EPS (encapsulated PostScript), containing all the necessary font information and the source file of the application (e.g., CorelDraw/Mac, CorelDraw/PC).

Disks should be clearly labelled with the following information:

  1. Journal title
  2. Name of author
  3. Figures contained on disk
  4. Hardware used (PC or Mac)
  5. Software used (name and version)

Sample disk label: figures

Journal title
A.N. Author
Figures 1-10

Adobe Illustrator 5.5

Offprints and Reprints
Free article access: Corresponding authors will receive free online access to their article through our website (www.informaworld.com). Reprints of articles published in this journal can be purchased through Rightslink® when proofs are received. If you have any queries, please contact our reprints department at reprints@tandf.co.uk

File transfer protocol
If you would like to deposit the final version of your manuscript via FTP, please contact the Editorial Production Manager for Journals, Taylor & Francis, 4 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN, UK; Tel. +44 (0)1235 828000; for a guide to access and use, or email Imran.Mirza@tandf.co.uk

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